Referate und Klassenarbeiten für Schüler

Suche:

Leistungskurs (4/5-stündig)

Grundkurs (2/3-stündig)

Abiturvorbereitung

Verschiedenes

Deutsch
Mathematik
Englisch
Erdkunde
Geschichte

Religion

Physik
Chemie
Biologie
Musik
Sonstige

Deutsch
Mathematik
Englisch
Erdkunde
Geschichte

Religion

Physik
Chemie
Biologie
Musik

Sonstige

Deutsch
Mathematik
Englisch
Erdkunde
Geschichte

Religion
Physik
Chemie
Biologie
Musik

Sonstige

Klassenstufen 5 bis 11

Interaktive Online-Tests

Unterrichtsmaterial (Lehrer)

Impressum

 

  Home / Oberstufe  / Englisch Abitur / Abiturvorbereitung 

 
 
Lernhilfe Tipps für das Englisch Abitur
Inhalt: Abi-Strategie für Questions on the Text, Composition and Translation.
Lehrplan: Abiturvorbereitung
Kursart: 4-stündig

 



Tipps für die Vorgehensweise im Englisch ABI
(bayrisches Abitur, aber auch für andere Bundesländer nutzlich)
Autor und weiteres Material: Jochen Lueders

1. Abitur Strategy

The difficulty of the text itself should not be the main criterion. With the help of your ALD/DCE you should normally be able to understand every text. However it can of course be a good idea to choose a text because you know something about its subject (e.g. because we dealt in class with it). Likewise it can be recommendable not to take a text when, even after the second reading, you do not understand it.

Literary task: Even if you do not like literature in general you should at least take a look at the literary task. As a rule of thumb one can say that nonfictional texts are mostly more difficult but their questions (especially their reference to certain paragraphs) are often rather easy, whereas with literary tasks it is often the other way round. The text itself is often relatively easy but the questions (e.g. characterization, interpretation, stylistic devices etc.) are more difficult, because they do not refer only to one or two paragraphs.

The main criterion are the questions on the text. Keep in mind that you get 50% of all points for them. Ask yourself e.g. the following questions: How clear is the reference of the questions, i.e. which passage(s) does a question refer to? How clearly do I understand what the question/task wants me to do (and what I am not supposed to do)? Do questions overlap? You can answer those questions of course only when you have analysed all of them carefully.

The second most important criterion are the topics for the compo­sition (25% of points). Ask yourself the following questions: How much do I know about this topic? Can I give convincing arguments and support them with concrete details/facts or can I only waffle? Can I think of an interesting title, introduction and/or conclusion?

The last criterion should be the difficulty of the translation. Unfortunately it is almost impossible to evaluate a translation quickly. Only when one has actually started translating one realizes that passages that seemed quite easy at first glance turn out to be very hard to translate into idiomatic German.

Order of tasks: Although the translation comes last on the Angabe you should not do it as the last task. Experience shows that translations are often the weakest part of the Abitur, especially when students are tired and/or have little time left. You can lose a lot of points when you run out of time and do not translate complete sentences. On the other hand it is much easier to write an acceptable composition in a hurry. So the recommended order of tasks is: Questions on the text – Translation – Composition.
 

2. Questions on the Text – Technique

First reading: During the first reading you should try to get an overview of the text and its (argumentative) structure. You should ask yourself questions like: What is all that about? What is the writer’s attitude towards his topic? What are his main arguments? It often helps to mentally summarize each paragraph in your own words. When you deal with a literary text you should find out who does what for which reasons. During the first reading you should look up only words that are absolutely necessary for understanding the whole text. Ignore all other words like e.g. descriptive (beschreibend) adjectives.

Second reading: During the second reading you should try to understand also parts/passages/details that you did not really grasp (erfassen) the first time. In addition you should look up all the words you do not know or where you are not absolutely sure what they mean in the given context.

Analysis: The next step is to read all the questions at least twice. Then you examine which paragraph(s) or passage(s) each question/task refers to. Analyse all the questions first before you start answering any of them. It is highly recommendable to answer the questions in the given order, however if you like you need not keep the order. If necessary you have to look up again certain words (especially adjectives) to make sure that you understand also details which may be important e.g. for a characterization task.

Reference: Normally you can assume (davon ausgehen) that question are asked in chronological order, i.e. the first question refers to the first (and second) paragraph, the second question to the following paragraph(s) etc. That is why it would be highly unusual that the third question refers to the first two paragraphs, whereas the first question refers to the third and fourth paragraph. Look out especially for keywords in the first (= topic) sentence of a paragraph (Question: What is the writer's attitude towards the growing Latino underclass? Text: In the search for solutions to America’s growing Latino underclass ...).

Overlapping: Questions normally do not overlap (sich überschneiden). Look and think again carefully when you have come to the conclusion that you are supposed to write the same in two different answers. It may happen that two questions refer to the same passage(s) but almost always they drive at (abzielen auf) different aspects.

Notes: You can note your results either on extra notepaper or you use e.g. a wavy line in the margin together with the corresponding number of the question/task. Take care to leave enough space on your notepaper so that you can easily add/insert something later on.

“Use your own words”: Keep in mind that you are supposed to paraphrase “as far as is appropriate” (angemessen), and not “as far as possible”. That means that you may, and sometimes even should quote key words and/or passages. Moreover you should quote when your paraphrase would be much longer and/or complicated than the original passage. Do not forget that your ALD/DCE offers perfect synonyms and/or paraphrases. Try to find German synonyms or paraphrases and see whether you can translate them into English.

Highlighting: Keep in mind that you cannot undo (rückgängig machen) wrong highlighting. Highlight only key words and/or passages, do not waste precious time by highlighting complete paragraphs.

Mental revision: Before you start answering a question in complete sentences you should make a quick mental revision of the rules on the handouts Questions on the Text and Quoting and Citing.

In the given order: It is strongly recommended to answer the questions “in the given order”. Normally there are some relatively easy questions/tasks at the beginning which you can answer pretty quickly and easily.

Stylistic Devices: Typically a task asks you to find three “relevant” stylistic devices and “explain how they work”. Look through the whole text and note your results grouped according to the different devices on your notepaper (of course with linenumbers). The four most common devices are simile, metaphor, personification and alliteration. Go through your list and choose the three best devices. When you have found e.g. several metaphors you again choose the best one. Stylistic devices are “relevant” or “good” when they occur (vorkommen) not just once in a text and when it is clear that the author has deliberately (absichtlich) used them, i.e. for instance when an alliteration is not just accidental (zufällig).

 

Summary: Questions on the Text – Technique

·    First reading: content, overall structure

·    Second reading: (linguistic) detail

·    Analysis of all questions: Which passage(s) does the question refer to?

·    If necessary: closer analysis when questions overlap

·    Analysis of content: What are key words/phrases in the passage(s)? Should I quote them or can I paraphrase?
Consider ALD/DCE and German alternatives

·    Writing the answers “in the given order”
 

3. Composition – Technique

Choosing a topic: Have a look at all the topics and ask yourself the following questions: How much do I know about this subject? Can I give concrete and convincing arguments/facts/details or can I only waffle (schwafeln)?

Brainstorming: Once you have chosen a topic you should make a brainstorming before you actually start writing. Note all the possible aspects/arguments/facts that come to your mind on notepaper. Leave enough space so that you can make additions later on. You may also note ideas for the title, the introduction and the conclusion.

Argumentative style: Keep in mind that you are supposed to write an argumentative and rational text, not an emotional one with a lot of rhetorical questions and exclamation marks.

Title: You can create interesting titles with the help of alliterations, puns and allusions to wellknown proverbs/sayings and titles of famous books, songs or films. It is recom­men­dable to write the title at the very end of the composition because you may have good ideas in the course of writing and you can make sure that your title fits your composition.

Structure of the composition: Your composition must consist of three, clearly distinguishable parts: introduction, main part and conclusion.  

Introduction: The introduction must lead to your topic. In composition where you are asked to give your opinion, it is recommendable to express your own opinion already at the end of the introduction. Typical elements of good intro­ductions are references to current events, quotes of famous people, (alarming) statistics and personal experiences.

Main part: The main part must consist of three separate paragraphs. Arrange your arguments in climactic order, i.e. start with the weakest one and end with the best and most convincing one. Take care to use suitable connectives to create a coherent text. Example: Intro­duction: “I was amazed when I recently read … “Main part: “First … Second … Finally …” Conclusion: “All in all …”.

“Discuss” means that you must present and weigh the pros and cons of an issue. In this case the main part consists of two paragraphs: one for the pros (“On the one hand ...”), the other for the cons (“On the other hand ...”). Each paragraph presents only two arguments with examples. Again arrange your material so that the better arguments come last.

Structure of a paragraph: The first sentence, the socalled topic sentence, presents a state­ment/claim (Behauptung), idea or thesis (These). The following sentences must refer to and support the topic sen­tence with the help of concrete examples. Each paragraph should consist of ca. four sentences.

Indents: Indent the first line of each paragraph (except the first one) by circa two centimetres in order to visualize the beginning of a new paragraph. This indent is especially important when the last line of the previous (vorangehend) paragraph goes to the very righthand margin; otherwise the reader does not know/see that a new paragraph begins.

Conclusion: Take care that your final paragraph is not just a mere repetition of what you have already said/written. Do not introduce new/additional arguments and/or examples in your conclusion.

Number of words: Do not count all your words in order to find out how many words you have already written. Choose a typical line, count the words in this line and multiply with the number of lines you have already written.

Dictionary: Your monolingual dictionary offers valuable help for your composition. Check all words/collocations/expressions when you are not sure how to use them. Pay attention to meaning, grammatical usage and labels such as formal, poetic, slang, spoken etc. When you still have time, proofread (Korrektur lesen) carefully and revise your text with the help of your ALD/DCE. Avoid for instance the repetitive use of good and bad.
 

4. Translation -  Tipps

Reihenfolge der Aufgaben: Die Übersetzung solltest du vor dem Aufsatz bearbeiten, da man bei Zeitnot erfahrungsgemäß besonders viele Fehler macht, bzw. im schlimmsten Fall ganze Satzteile bzw. Sätze auslässt.

Am Beginn steht, wie bei Questions on the text, wieder das mindestens zwei­malige sorg­fältige Durchlesen des Textes. Beim ersten Durchgang ist die Leitfrage wieder „Worum geht es?“, beim zweiten Durchgang gilt es den gedank­lichen/argumentativen Auf­bau des Textes und die Einstellung des Autors zu erfassen. Aus Zeitgründen solltest du grundsätzlich keine Rohfassung erstellen. Für spätere Korrekturen/Ergänzungen ist es nützlich nach jeder Zeile eine Leerzeile zu lassen. Falls der englische Originaltext aus zwei oder mehr Absätzen besteht, musst du seine Absatzeinteilung übernehmen.

Oft ist es gerade bei verschachtelten Sätzen sinnvoll, beim Hauptsatz beginnend sich „von oben nach unten“ durch den Satz hindurchzuarbeiten. Bei unklaren Passagen solltest du ausreichend große Lücken lassen, die du nachträglich, notfalls mit Hilfe des intelligent guessing (immer unter Beachtung der allgemeinen Textaussage) füllst.

Auf keinen Fall darfst du irgendwo in deiner Übersetzung offensichtlichen Unsinn akzeptieren (Gefahr von Doppelfehlern!).

Du musst dich stets für eine Fassung entscheiden und darfst keine Alternativen oder einge­klammerten Bemerkungen (wie „wörtlich eigentlich ...“) hinzufügen.

Bei Fremdwörtern gilt prinzipiell, dass – falls vorhanden – ein mindestens gleichwertiges deutsches Wort vorzuziehen ist. Grundsätzlich solltest du „so wörtlich wie möglich und so frei wie nötig“ übersetzen.

Überarbeitung: Als letzten Arbeitsschritt solltest du nach einer Pause von ca. zwei Minuten, in der du „auf Distanz“ zu deinem Text gehst, deine Übersetzung nochmals „unvoreingenommen“ auf sprachliche Korrektheit und Flüssigkeit hin durchlesen und falls nötig Passagen mit Hilfe des ALD/DCE überarbeiten.

Autor und weiteres Material: Jochen Lueders

  30

     
 

Home | Impressum | Links

Copyright © 2019 klassenarbeiten.de